Viola odorata

Viola odorata

Synonymy

Source: Raab-Straube, E. von & Henning, T. (2018+): Violaceae. – In: Euro+Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity.
Viola odorata L., Sp. Pl.: 934. 1753
    • =Viola maderensis Lowe in Trans. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 4: 36. 1831
    • Viola odorata var. maderensis (Lowe) Lowe, Man. Fl. Madeira 1: 44. 1857
    • =Viola wiedemannii Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 457. 1867
    • =Viola stolonifera J. J. Rodr. in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 25: 238. 1879

    Distribution

    AE(G) Ab(A N) Ag Al Ar Au(dA dL) BH Be(B L) ?Bl(N) Br Bu By Ca(C G P T) Cg Cm Co Cr Ct Cy Ga(F) Ge Gg Gr Hb(E N) He Ho Hs Hu Ir It Jo Le Lu Ma Md(M) Mk Mo Po Rf(C CS E S) Rm Sa Si(M S) Sl Sr Tn Tu(A E) Uk [nAz(F G J L M P S T) Bl(I M) nCs nDa Es nFe Hs(A S) La Lt nNo Rf(K NW) Sk nSu] 

    Euro+Med endemic: Albania nativeA,B,C,D,E,F,G; Algeria nativeH,I; Armenia nativeJ,K; Austria, with Liechtenstein nativeD (Austria native: doubtfully nativeL,M,N, Liechtenstein native: doubtfully nativeM); Azerbaijan (Azerbaijan (core) nativeK,O, Nakhchivan nativeK,O); Azores (Faial naturalisedP, Flores naturalisedP, Graciosa naturalisedP, Pico naturalisedP, Santa Maria naturalisedP, São Jorge naturalisedP, São Miguel naturalisedP, Terceira naturalisedP); Baleares (Ibiza introducedQ, Mallorca introducedQ, Menorca native: presence questionableQ); Belarus nativeR,S,T; Belgium, with Luxembourg nativeD (Belgium nativeU,V, Luxembourg nativeU,V,W); Bosnia-Herzegovina nativeC,X; Bulgaria nativeC,D,Y,Z,AA; Canary islands nativeH (Gomera nativeAB, Gran Canaria nativeAB, La Palma nativeAB, Tenerife nativeAB); Corsica nativeD,AC,AD,AE; Crete, with Karpathos nativeC,D,AF; Crimea nativeD,R,S,T; Croatia nativeC,X,AG,AH,AI; Cyprus nativeAJ; Czech Republic naturalisedAK; Denmark naturalisedD,AL,AM,AN; East Aegean islands (Greek East Aegean islands nativeAF); Estonia introducedR,S,T,AO; Finland naturalisedAM,AN,AP; Former Yugoslavia nativeD; France, with Channel is. and Monaco (France nativeD,U,AD,AQ); Georgia nativeK,AR,AS; Germany nativeD,N,AT,AU,AV,AW; Great Britain nativeD; Greece nativeC,D,AF,AX; Hungary nativeD,AY,AZ,BA,BB; Ireland, with N Ireland nativeD (Ireland nativeBC,BD, Northern Ireland nativeBC); Israel/Palestine nativeBE; Israel/Palestine-Jordan nativeBF; Italy, with San Marino and Vatican City nativeD,AI,BG,BH; Jordan nativeBI,BJ; Latvia introducedR,S,T,AO; Lebanon nativeBK; Lebanon-Syria nativeBF; Lithuania introducedR,S,T,AO; Madeira archipelago nativeH (Madeira island nativeBL); Moldova nativeR,S,T,BM; Montenegro nativeC,X,BN; Morocco nativeBO,BP,BQ; Netherlands nativeD,BR,BS; North Macedonia nativeX,BT; Norway naturalisedD,AM,AN; Poland nativeD,BU; Portugal nativeD,Q; Romania nativeC,D,BV,BW,BX; Russia (C European Russia nativeR,S,T, E European Russia nativeR,S,T, Kaliningrad region introducedR,S,T,BY, NW European Russia introducedR,S,T,BZ, North Caucasus nativeK,CA, S European Russia nativeR,S,T); Sardinia nativeD,BG,BH; Serbia, with Kosovo nativeC,X,CB; Sicily, with Malta nativeD (Malta nativeCC, Sicily nativeBG,BH,CD); Slovakia introducedCE,CF,CG,CH,CI; Slovenia nativeX,AI,CJ; Spain, with Gibraltar and Andorra nativeD (Andorra introducedQ,CK, Spain introducedQ,CL,CM); Sweden naturalisedAM; Switzerland nativeD,N,CN,CO,CP; Tunisia nativeH,CQ,CR; Turkey (Turkey, Asiatic part nativeCS,CT, Turkey-in-Europe nativeD,CT); Ukraine nativeS,T; Ukraine, with Crimea nativeR,CU,CV

    Common Names

    Aragonese (Spain): violetaCW; Basque (Spain): biolaCW, biolchoaCW, bioleta usaindunCW, bioleta usaindunaCW, bioleta-loraCW, bioliñaCW, bioltxoCW, brioletCW, briolinaCW, gorrimoreCW; Catalan; Valencian (Menorca): viola boscanaCW; Catalan; Valencian (Spain): violaCW, viola boscanaCW, viola d'olorCW, viola de boschCW, viola de la Mare de DeuCW, viola d´olorCW, viola veraCW, violerCW, violer boscáCW, violetaCW, violeta/violetesCW; Finnish (Finland): tuoksuorvokkiCX; Galician (Spain): pé de múaCW, violaCW, violetaCW, violeta-de-cheiroCW, víolaCW; Majorcan (Mallorca): viola boscanaCW, viola buscanaCW, viola de la Mare de DeuCW, violeta de la Mare de DéuCW; Portuguese (Portugal): beneffeCW, violaCW, violasCW, violetaCW, violeta cheirosa ordinariaCW, violeta de cheiroCW, violeta-de-cheiroCW, violetasCW, violetas-de-cheiroCW, violettaCW, virlassaCW, víolaCW, víolasCW, víolas-roxasCW; Spanish; Castilian (Spain): alhelíCW, clavelinaCW, violaCW, viola comúnCW, viola de olorCW, viola olorosaCW, violetaCW, violeta acopadaCW, violeta aromáticaCW, violeta blancaCW, violeta comúnCW, violeta de olorCW, violeta de olor o comúnCW, violeta dobleCW, violeta olorosaCW, violeta purpúreaCW, violeta verdaderaCW, violetasCW, violetonesCW, viroletasCW; Swedish (Sweden & Finland): luktviolCX; Valencian (Spain): violesCW, violetesCW

    Bibliography

    A. Barina, Z. 2017: Distribution atlas of vascular plants in Albania. – Budapest: Hungarian Natural History Museum
    B. Demiri, M. 1983: Flora ekskursioniste e shqipërisë. – Tiranë: Shtëpia Botuese e Librit Shkollor
    C. Hayek, A. von: Prodromus Florae peninsulae Balcanicae, 1. – Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis Beihefte 30(1): 1-1193
    D. Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A. 1964–1980: Flora europaea 1-5. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    E. Vangjeli, J. 2003: Udhëheqës fushor i florës së Shqipërisë. – Tiranë
    F. Vangjeli, J. 2015: Excursion Flora of Albania
    G. Vangjeli, J. 2017: Flora Albanica. Atlas 1. – Schmitten-Obereifenberg: Koeltz
    H. Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. 2013: Index synonymique de la flore d'afrique du nord 5. – Genève
    I. Quézel, P. A. & Santa, S. 1963: Nouvelle flore de l’Algérie et des régions désertiques méridionales 2. – Paris
    J. Takhtajan, A. L. 1966: Flora Armenii 5. – Erevan: Izdatel'stvo AN ASSR
    K. Takhtajan, A. L. 2012: Konspekt flory Kavkaza 3(2). – Sankt-Peterburg & Moskva
    L. Adler, W., Oswald, K. & Fischer, R. 1994: Exkursionsflora von Österreich. – Stuttgart & Wien
    M. Fischer, M. A., Oswald, K. & Adler, W. 2008: Exkursionsflora für Österreich, Liechtenstein und Südtirol, ed. 3. – Linz
    N. Hegi, G. 1975: Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa, ed. 2, V
    O. Karjagin, I. I. 1955: Flora Azerbajdžana 6. – Baku: Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk Azerbajdžanskoj SSR
    P. Silva, L., Moura, M., Schaefer, H., Rumsey, F. & Dias, E. F. 2010: Lista das plantas vasculares (Tracheobionta). – In: Borges, P. A. V. & al., Listagem dos organismos terrestres e marinhos dos Acores (A list of the terrestrial and marine biota from the Azores). – Cascais
    Q. Castroviejo, S. 1993: Flora Iberica. Plantas vasculares de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. 3
    R. Fedorov, A. A. 1996: Flora Europae Orientalis 9. – Petropoli: Mir i Semia-XCV
    S. Tzvelev, N. N. & Geltman, D. V. (ed.) 2012: Conspectus Florae Europae Orientalis 1. – Petropoli
    T. Tzvelev, N. N. 1996: Flora vostočnoj Evropy 9. – Sankt-Peterburg
    U. Lambinon, J. & Verloove, F. 2012: Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du nord de la France et des régions voisines (Ptéridophytes et Spermatophytes), ed. 6. – Meise
    V. van Rompaey, E. & Delvosalle, L. 1979: Atlas de la flore Belge et Luxembourgeoise. Ptéridophytes et Spermatophytes, ed. 2. – Meise
    W. Colling, G. 2005: Red List of the Vascular Plants of Luxembourg. – Ferrantia 42
    X. Trinajstić, I. (ed.) 1975: Flora analitica Jugoslaviae 2(1). – Zagreb: Institut za botaniku sveučilišta u Zagrebu
    Y. Andreev, N. , Ančev, M. , Kožuharov, S. I. , Markova, M. , Peev, D. & Petrova, A. 1992: Opredelitel na visšite rastenija v Bălgarija. – Sofija: Nauka i izkustvo
    Z. Assyov, B., Petrova, A., Dimitrov, D. & Vassilev, R. 2012: Konspekt na visšata flora na Bălgarija, ed. 4. – Sofija
    AA. Jordanov, D. 1979: Flora na Narodna Republika Bălgarija 7. – Sofija
    AB. Acebes Ginovés, J. R. & al. 2010: Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta, pp. 119-172. – In: Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N. & García, A., Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias. Hongos, plantas y animales terrestres. 2009. – Santa Cruz de Tenerife
    AC. Gamisans, J. 1985: Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la Corse. – Ajaccio
    AD. Guinochet, M. & Vilmorin, R. de 1982: Flore de France 4. – Paris
    AE. Jeanmonod, D. & Gamisans, J. 2013: Flora corsica, ed. 2. – Saujon: Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest
    AF. Dimopoulos, P., Raus, Th., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatroú, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A. & Tzanoudakis, D. 2013: Vascular Plants of Greece. An annotated checklist. – Englera 31
    AG. Nikolić, T. 1997: Flora Croatica, Index Florae Croaticae Pars 2. – Zagreb: Croatian Natural History Museum
    AH. Nikolić, T. 2020: Flora Croatica. Vaskularna flora Republike Hrvatske 3. – Zagreb
    AI. Rottensteiner, W. K. 2014: Exkursionsflora für Istrien. – Klagenfurt
    AJ. Meikle, R. D. 1985: Flora of Cyprus 2. – Kew
    AK. Danihelka, J., Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. 2012: Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic. – Preslia 84: 647-811
    AL. Hansen, K. 1993: Dansk feltflora. – København
    AM. Jonsell, B. & Karlsson, T. 2010: Flora Nordica 6. – Stockholm
    AN. Lid, D. T. 1994: Norsk Flora, ed. 6. – Oslo
    AO. Laasimer, L., Kuusk, V., Tabaka, L. & Lekavičius, A. (ed.) 1996: Flora of the Baltic countries 2. – Tartu: Estonian Academy of Sciences
    AP. Hämet-Ahti, L., Suominen, J., Ulvinen, T. & Uotila, P. 1998: Retkeilykasvio, ed. 4. – Helsinki
    AQ. Tison, J.-M. & de Foucault, B. 2014: Flora Gallica. – Mèze: Biotope
    AR. Gagnidze, R. 2005: Vascular plants of Georgia. A nomenclatural checklist. – Tbilisi
    AS. Kec'xoveli, N. 1984: Flora Gruzii, ed. 2, 9. – Tbilisi: Metzniereba
    AT. Buttler, K. P., Thieme, M. & Mitarbeiter 2016: Florenliste von Deutschland - Gefäßpflanzen. Version 8 (August 2016) - http://www.kp-buttler.de/florenliste/index.htm
    AU. Rothmaler, W. H. P. 1994: Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4. Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 8. – Jena, Stuttgart
    AV. Rothmaler, W. H. P. 2000: Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 3. Gefäßpflanzen: Atlasband, ed. 10. – Heidelberg, Berlin
    AW. Wisskirchen, R. & Haeupler, H. 1998: Standardliste der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands. – Stuttgart
    AX. Strid, P. A. K. 1986: Mountain Flora of Greece 1. – Cambridge & Edinburgh
    AY. Horváth, F., Dobolyi, Z. K., Morschhauser, T, Lőkös, L., Karas, L. & Szerdahelyi, T. 1995: Flóra adatbázis 1.2. Taxon-lista és attribútum allomány. – Vácrátót
    AZ. Horváth, F., Dobolyi, Z. K., Morschhauser, T, Lőkös, L., Karas, L. & Szerdahelyi, T. 1995: Flóra adatbázis 1.2. Taxon-lista és attribútum allomány. – Vácrátót (as Viola odorata L. subsp. odorata)
    BA. Horváth, F., Dobolyi, Z. K., Morschhauser, T, Lőkös, L., Karas, L. & Szerdahelyi, T. 1995: Flóra adatbázis 1.2. Taxon-lista és attribútum allomány. – Vácrátót (as Viola odorata subsp. wiedemannii (Boiss.) Kupffer)
    BB. Simon, T. 1992: A magyarországi edényes flóra határozója. Harasztok - virágos növények. – Budapest
    BC. Scannell, M. J. P. & Synnott, D. M. 1987: Census catalogue of the flora of Ireland, ed. 2. – Dublin
    BD. Webb, D. A., Parnell, J. & Doogue, D. 1996: An Irish Flora. – Dundalk
    BE. Danin, A. 2004: Distribution atlas of plants in the Flora palaestina area. – Jerusalem
    BF. Post, G. E. 1932: Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai, ed. 2, 1
    BG. Conti, F., Abbate, G., Alessandrini, A. & Blasi, C. 2005: An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora. – Roma: Fratelli Palombi
    BH. Pignatti, S. 1982: Flora d'Italia 2
    BI. Al-Eisawi, D. M. 1982: List of Jordan vascular plants. – Mitteilungen (aus) der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 18: 79-182
    BJ. Taifour, H. & El-Oqlah, A. A. 2017: The plants of Jordan. An annotated checklist. – Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens
    BK. Mouterde, P. 1970: Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie 2. – Beyrouth
    BL. Jardim, R. & Menezes de Sequeira, M. 2008: Lista das plantas vasculares (Pteridophyta e Spermatophyta), pp. 179-207. – In: Borges, P. A. V., Abreu, C., Franquinho Aguiar, A. M., Carvalho, P., Jardim, R., Melo, I., Oliveira, P., Sérgio, C., Serrano, A. R. M. & Vieira, P., Listagem dos fungos, flora e fauna terrestra dos arquipélagos da Madeira e Selvagens. – Funchal
    BM. Gejdeman, T. S. 1986: Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. – Kisinev: Shtiintza
    BN. Rohlena, J. 1942: Conspectus florae montenegrinae. – Preslia. Věstník (Časopis) československé botanické společnosti 20-21: 1-506
    BO. Fennane, M., Ibn Tattou, M., Mathez, J., Ouyahya, A. & Oualidi, J. 1999: Flore Pratique du Maroc 1
    BP. Jahandiez, É. & Maire, R. C. J. E. 1932: Catalogue des plantes du Maroc 2. – Alger
    BQ. Valdés, B. & al. 2002: Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du nord du Maroc, incluant des clés d'ídentification 1. – Madrid
    BR. Duistermaat, H., Sparrius, L. B. & Denters, T. 2021: Standaardlijst van de Nederlandse flora 2020. – Gorteria; mededelingenblad ten dienste van de floristiek en het vegetatie-onderzoek van Nederland 43: 109-156
    BS. Meijden, R. van der 1990: Heukels' Flora van Nederland, ed. 21. – Groningen
    BT. Micevski, K. 1995: Flora of Republic of Macedonia 1(3). – Skopje: Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts
    BU. Mirek, Z. 1995: Vascular plants of Poland. A Checklist. – Polish Botanical Studies Guidebook Series 15
    BV. Ciocârlan, V. 2009: Flora Ilustrată a României: Pteridophyta et Spermatophyta. – Bucureşti
    BW. Ciocîrlan, V. 1988: Flora Ilustrata a României 1. – Bucureşti: Editura Ceres
    BX. Oprea, A. 2005: Lista critică a plantelor vasculare din România. – Iaşi
    BY. Dedkov, V. P. (ed.) 1999: Konspekt sosudistyh rastenij Kaliningradskoj Oblasti. – Kaliningrad
    BZ. Tzvelev, N. N. 2000: Opredelitel’ sosudistyhrastenij severo-zapadnoj Rossii (Leningradskaja, Pskovskaja i Novgorodskaja oblasti). – Sankt Peterburg
    CA. Murtazaliev, R. A. 2009: Konspekt flory Dagestana 1. – Makhachkala
    CB. Josifović, M. 1972: Flora SR Srbije = Flore de la Republique Socialiste de Serbie 3. – Beograd: Academie Serbe des sciences et des arts
    CC. Haslam, S. L., Sell, P. D. & Wolseley, P. A. 1977: A flora of the Maltese Islands. – Msida
    CD. Raimondo, F. M., Domina, G. & Spadaro, V. 2010: Checklist of the vascular flora of Sicily. – Quaderni di Botanica ambientale e applicata 21: 189-252
    CE. Dostál, J. 1989: Nová Kvetena CSSR 1
    CF. Dostál, J. 1989: Nová Kvetena CSSR 1 (as Viola odorata L. subsp. odorata)
    CG. Kubát, K. 1992: Velky klúc na urcovanie vyssích rastlín II
    CH. Kubát, K. 1992: Velky klúc na urcovanie vyssích rastlín II (as Viola odorata L. subsp. odorata)
    CI. Marhold, K. & Hindák, F. 1998: Zoznam nižších a vyšších rastlín Slovenska. – Bratislava
    CJ. Martinčič, A. 1999: Mala flora Slovenije, ed. 3. – Ljubljana
    CK. Carrillo, E., Mercadé, A., Ninot, J. M., Carreras, J., Ferré, A. & Font, X. 2008: Check-list i Llista vermella de la flora d’Andorra
    CL. Bolòs, O. de, Vigo Bonada, J., Masalles, R. M. & Ninot, J. M. 1990: Flora manual dels països catalans. – Barcelona
    CM. Valdés, B. 1987: Flora Vascular de Andalucía Occidental 1
    CN. Aeschimann, D. & Burdet, H. M. 1994: Flore de la Suisse, ed. 2. – Neuchâtel
    CO. Hess, H. E. 1998: Bestimmungsschlüssel zur Flora der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete, ed. 4. – Basel, Boston & Berlin
    CP. Hess, H. E., Landolt, E., Hirzel, R. & Baltisberger, M. 2010: Bestimmungsschlüssel zur Flora der Schweiz, ed. 6. – Basel: Birkhäuser
    CQ. Le Floc’h, E., Boulos, L. & Véla, E. 2011: Catalogue synonymique commenté de la Flore de Tunisie, ed. 2. – Tunis
    CR. Pottier-Alapetite, G. 1981: Flore de la Tunisie 2. – Tunis
    CS. Davis, P. H. 1965: Flora of Turkey and East Aegean Islands 1
    CT. Güner, A. 2012: Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi. – Istanbul
    CU. Mosyakin, S. L. & Fedoronchuk, M. M. 1999: Vascular plants of Ukraine. A nomenclatural checklist. – Kiev: M. G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
    CV. Prokudin, J. N. 1987: Opredelitel’ vysših rastenij Ukrainy. – Kiev: Naukova Dumka
    CW. anonymous 2010: Anthos. Information System of the plants of Spain. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC - Fundación Biodiversidad – http://www.anthos.es/
    CX. Kurtto, A., Lampinen, R., Piirainen, M. & Uotila, P. 2019: Checklist of the vascular plants of Finland. Suomen putkilokasvien luettelo. – Helsinki: Finnish Museum of Natural History LUOMUS