Source: Greuter, W. (2006+): Compositae (pro parte majore). – In: Greuter, W. & Raab-Straube, E. von (ed.): Compositae. Euro+Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity.
Cynara, Sp. Pl.: 827. 1753
AE(G) Ag Bl(I M) dCa(C F G L P T) Co Cr Ct Cy Eg Ga(F) Gr Hs(A G S) Ir It Jo Le Li Lu Ma dMd(D M P) Sa Si(M S) Sy Tn Tu(A) [cAb(A) Al cAu cBH aBe nBl(N) pBr aCa(H) cCm aGe aHb(E) aHe cHo cMo cRf(S) cRm cSk cUk]
Euro+Med: Albania introduced; Algeria native; Austria, with Liechtenstein cultivated; Azerbaijan, with Nakhchivan (Azerbaijan cultivated); Baleares native (Ibiza native, Mallorca native, Menorca naturalised); Belgium, with Luxembourg casual; Bosnia-Herzegovina cultivated; Canary islands native: doubtfully native (Fuerteventura native, Gomera native, Gran Canaria native, Hierro casual, La Palma native, Lanzarote native, Tenerife native); Corsica native; Crete, with Karpathos native; Crimea cultivated; Croatia native; Cyprus native; East Aegean islands (Greek East Aegean islands native); Egypt native; Former Yugoslavia cultivated; France, with Channel is. and Monaco (France native); Germany casual; Great Britain introduced: uncertain degree of naturalisation; Greece native; Ireland, with N Ireland (Ireland casual); Israel/Palestine native; Italy, with San Marino and Vatican City native; Jordan native; Lebanon native; Libya native; Madeira archipelago native: doubtfully native (Desertas native: doubtfully native, Madeira island native: doubtfully native, Porto Santo native: doubtfully native); Moldova cultivated; Morocco native; Netherlands cultivated; Portugal native; Romania cultivated; Russia (S European Russia cultivated); Sardinia native; Sicily, with Malta native (Malta native, Sicily native); Slovakia cultivated; Spain, with Gibraltar and Andorra native (Andorra native, Gibraltar native, Spain native); Switzerland casual; Syria native; Tunisia native; Turkey (Turkey, Asiatic part native); Ukraine cultivated; Ukraine, with Crimea cultivated